Voting Squared: Quadratic Voting in Democratic Politics, University of Chicago Coase-Sandor Institute for Law & Economics Research Paper No. 657, (2014) (with E. Glen Weyl)

Inside or Outside the System?, U. Chicago L. Rev. (2013) (with Adrian Vermeule)

How Well do Measures of Judicial Ability Predict Judicial Performance?: A Case Study Using Securities Class Actions, Inter’l Rev. L. & Econ. (forthcoming) (with Stephen J. Choi and Mitu Gulati)

International Law and the Limits of Macroeconomic Cooperation, S. Cal. L. Rev. (forthcoming) (with Alan Sykes)

An FDA for Financial Innovation: Applying the Insurable Interest Doctrine to 21st-Century Financial Markets, 107 Northwestern U. L. Rev. 1307 (2013) (with E. Glen Weyl)

The Dynamics of Contract Evolution, 88 NYU L. Rev. 1 (2013) (with Stephen J. Choi and Mitu Gulati)

The Law and Policy of Judicial Retirement: An Empirical Study, 42 J. Legal Stud. 111 (2013) (with Stephen J. Choi and Mitu Gulati)

Benefit-Cost Analysis for Financial Regulation, 103 Amer. Econ. Rev.: Papers & Proceedings 393 (2013) (with E. Glen Weyl)

The Institutional Structure of Immigration Law, 80 U. Chicago L. Rev. 289 (2013)

The Questionable Basis of the Common European Sales Law: The Role of an Optional Instrument in Jurisdictional Competition, 50 Common Market L. Rev. 261 (2013)

International Paretianism: A Defense, 13 Chicago J. Int’l L. 347 (2013) (with David Weisbach)

Reply to Danner, in Mark Danner, Torture and the Forever War (Tanner Lecture, forthcoming 2012)

An FDA for Financial Innovation: Applying the Insurable Interest Doctrine to 21st-Century Financial Markets, Nw. U. L. Rev. (forthcoming) (with E. Glen Weyl)

Aggregation and the Law, Yale L. J. (forthcoming) (with Ariel Porat)

Delegation in Immigration Law, U. Chi. L. Rev. (forthcoming) (with Adam Cox)

Human Rights, the Laws of War, and Reciprocity, L. & Ethics of Human Rights (forthcoming)

Unemployment, Regulation, and Cost-Benefit Analysis, 98 Va. L. Rev. 579 (2012) (with Jonathan Masur)

The Evolution of Contractual Terms in Sovereign Bonds, J. Legal Analysis (2012) (with Stphen J. Choi and Mitu Gulati)

Tyrannophobia, in Comparative Constitutional Design (Tom Ginsburg, ed. 2012)(with Adrian Vermeule)

Deference to the Executive in the US after September 11, 35 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 213 (2012)

Efficient Breach of International Law: Optimal Remedies, “Legalized Noncompliance,” and Related Issues, 110 Mich. L. Rev. 243 (2011) (with Alan Sykes)

What Do Federal District Judges Want?: An Analysis of Publications, Citations, and Reversals, 28 J. Law, Econ., & Org. (forthcoming) (with Stephen J. Choi and Mitu Gulati)

Pricing Terms in Sovereign Debt Contracts: A Greek Case Study, 6 Capital Markets, L. J. (2011) (With Stephen J. Choi and Mitu Gulati)

Judging Women, 8 J. Empirical Legal Stud. 504 (2011) (with Stephen J. Choi, Mitu Gulati, and Mirya Holman)

Climate Regulation and the Limits of Cost-Benefit Analysis, California L. Rev. (forthcoming) (with Jonathan Masur)

Constitutional Possibility and Constitutional Evolution, in Law, Economics and Evolutionary Theory , (Peer Zumbansen and Gralf-Peter Calliess eds. 2011)

The Flaws of Foreign Affairs Legalism, 51 Va. J. Int’l. 507 (2011) (with Daniel Abebe)

The Right to Withdraw in Contract Law, 40 J. Legal Stud. 115 (2011) (with Omri Ben-Shahar)

The Limits of Constitutional Convergence, 11 Chicago J. Int’l L. 399 (2011) (with Rosalind Dixon)

Economic Foundations of the Law of the Sea, 104 Amer. J. Int’l L. 569 (2010) (with Alan Sykes)

ProCD v. Zeidenberg and Cognitive Overload in Contractual Bargaining, 77 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1181 (2010)

Evaluating the Effects of International Law: Next Steps, 1 Global Policy 334 (2010)

Introduction in The Economics of Public International Law(Eric A. Posner, ed.): Edward Elgar (2010)

Divide and Conquer, 2 J. Legal Analysis 417 (2010) (with Kathryn Spier and Adrian Vermeule)

Subconstitutionalism, 62 Stanford L. Rev. 1583 (2010) (with Tom Ginsburg)

Against Feasibility Analysis, 77 U. Chi. L. Rev. 657 (2010) (with Jonathan Masur)

Professional or Politicians?: The Uncertain Empirical Case for an Elected Judiciary, 26 J. Law, Econ., & Org. 290 (2010) (with Stephen Choi and Mitu Gulati)

The Rights of Migrants: An Optimal Contract Framework, 84 NYU L. Rev. 1403 (2009) (with Adam B. Cox)

A Loan Modification Approach to the Housing Crisis, 11 Amer. L. & Econ. Rev. 579 (2009) (with Luigi Zingales)

Crisis Governance in the Administrative State: 9/11 and the Financial Meltdown of 2008, 76 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1613 (2009) (with Adrian Vermeule)

Fault in Contract Law, 107 Mich. L. Rev. 1431 (2009)

Judicial Evaluations and Information Forcing: Ranking State High Courts and their Judges, 58 Duke L. J. 1313 (2009) (with Stephen Choi and Mitu Gulati)

New Foundations of Cost–Benefit Analysis : A Reply to Professors Sinden, Kysar, and Driesen, 3 Regulation & Governance 72 (2009) (with Matthew Adler)

Introduction to the Conference on Law and Happiness, 37 J. Legal Stud. S1 (2008) (with Cass Sunstein)

Erga Omnes Norms, Institutionalization, and Constitutionalism in International Relations, 165 J. Inst’l & Theoretical Economics 5 (2009)

Are Judges Overpaid?, 1 J. Legal Analysis 47 (2009) (with Stephen Choi and Mitu Gulati)

Should Greenhouse Gas Permits Be Allocated on a Per Capita Basis?, 97 Calif. L. Rev. 51 (2009) (with Cass Sunstein)

Soft Law: Lessons from Congressional Practice, 61 Stanford L. Rev. 573 (2008) (with Jacob Gersen)

Human Welfare, Not Human Rights, 108 Colum. L. Rev. 1758 (2008)

Does Political Bias in the Judiciary Matter?: Implications of Judicial Bias Studies for Legal Reform, 75 U. Chi. L. Rev. 853 (2008)

Happiness Research and Cost-Benefit Analysis, 37 J. Legal Stud. S253 (2008)

Climate Change Justice, 96 Geo. L.J. 1565 (2008) (with Cass Sunstein)

Constitutional Showdowns, 156 U. Pa. L. Rev. 991 (2008) (with Adrian Vermeule)

Policy by Reflex, Review of Stephen Holmes, The Matador’s Cape: America’s Reckless Response to Terrorism, 70 Review of Politics 513 (2008)

Originalism and Emergencies: A Reply to Lawson, 87 B.U. L. Rev. 313 (2007) (with Adrian Vermeule)

Review of Robert E. Scott and Paul B. Stephan, The Limits of Leviathan: Contract Theory and the Enforcement of International Law, 101 Amer. J. Int’l L. 509 (2007)

Review of Law without Nations?: Why Constitutional Government Requires Sovereign States, by Jeremy A. Rabkin, 4 Perspectives on Politics 432 (2007)

The International Protection of Cultural Property : Some Skeptical Observations, 8 Chi. J. Int’l L. 213 (2007)

A Critique of the Odious Debt Doctrine (with Albert Choi), 70 Law & Contemp. Prob. 33 (2007)

Climate Change and International Human Rights Litigation: A Critical Appraisal, 155 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1925 (2007) , reprinted in Human Rights and the Environment (Svitlana Kravchenko & John E. Bonine eds., 2008)

Timing Rules and Legislative Action, 121 Harv. L. Rev. 543 (2007) (with Jacob Gersen)

The Case for For-Profit Charities, 93 Va. L. Rev. 2017 (2007) (with Anup Malani)

The Credible Executive, 74 U. Chi. L. Rev. 865 (2007) (with Adrian Vermeule)

An Economic Analysis of State and Individual Responsibility Under International Law, 9 Amer. L. & Econ. Rev. 72 (2007) (with Alan Sykes)

Social Norms and Economic Analysis of the Law, in Economic Analysis of Law: A European Perspective (Aristides N. Hatzis ed., forthcoming 2007)

Agencies Should Ignore Distant-Future Generations, 74 U. Chi. L. Rev. 139 (2007)

On Learning from Others, 59 Stan. L. Rev. 1309 (2007) (with Cass Sunstein)

The Second-Order Structure of Immigration Law, 59 Stan. L. Rev. 809 (2007) (withAdam Cox)

Signing Statements and Executive Power, 23 Constitutional Commentary 307 (2007) (with Curtis Bradley)

Chevronizing Foreign Relations, 116 Yale L.J. 1171 (2007) (with Cass Sunstein)

Review of Terrorism and the State: Rethinking the Rules of State Responsibility, by Tal Becker, 121 Pol. Sci. Q. 505 (2006)

The New International Law Scholarship, 34 Ga. J. Inter’l & Comp. L. 463 (2006)

The Law of Other States, 59 Stan. L. Rev. 131 (2006) (with Cass Sunstein)

There Are No Penalty Default Rules in Contract Law, 33 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. 563 (2006)

Emergencies and Democratic Failure, 92 Va. L. Rev. 1091 (2006) (with Adrian Vermeule)

International Law and the Rise of China, 7 Chi. J. Int’l L. 1 (2006) (with John Yoo)

International Law: A Welfarist Approach, 73 U. Chi. L. Rev. 487 (2006)

The Decline of the International Court of Justice, in International Conflict Resolution 111 (Stefan Voigt, Max Albert, and Dieter Schmidtchen eds. 2006)

Holding Internet Service Providers Accountable, 14 Sup. Ct. Econ. Rev. 221 (2006) (with Douglas Lichtman), reprinted in The Law and Economics of Cybersecurity (Mark F. Grady and Francesco Parisi eds. 2006)

Should Coercive Interrogation Be Legal?, 104 Mich. L. Rev. 671 (2006) (with Adrian Vermeule)

Reply to Helfer and Slaughter, 93 Cal. L. Rev. 957 (2005) (with John Yoo)

The International Court of Justice: Voting and Usage Statistics, ASIL Papers and Proceedings 130 (2005)

Law, in The Encyclopedia of Social Measurement 463 (Kimberly Kempf-Leonard ed. 2005)

Contract Theory, in The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory138 (Martin P. Golding and William A. Edmundson eds. 2005)

Terrorism and the Laws of War, 5 Chi. J. Int’l L. 423 (2005)

Political Trials in Domestic and International Law, 55 Duke L. J. 75 (2005)

Is the International Court of Justice Biased?, 34 J. Legal Stud. 599 (2005) (with Miguel de Figueiredo)

Dollars and Death, 72 U. Chi. L. Rev. 537 (2005) (with Cass Sunstein)

International Law and the Disaggregated State, 32 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. 797 (2005)

Optimal War and Jus ad Bellum, 93 Georgetown L.J. 993 (2005) (with Alan Sykes)

Judicial Independence in International Tribunals, 93 Calif. L. Rev. 1 (2005) (with John Yoo)

Transnational Legal Process and the Supreme Court’s 2003-2004 Term: Some Skeptical Observations, 12 Tulsa Journal of Comparative and International Law 23 (2004)

Remarks on the Alien Tort Claims Act and Transitional Justice, 98 Am. Soc’y Int’l L. Proc. 56 (2004)

Emergencies and Political Change: A Reply to Tushnet, 56 Stan. L. Rev. 1593 (2004) (with Adrian Vermeule)

The Political Economy of Property Exemption Laws, 47 J. Law & Econ. 19 (2004) (with Richard Hynes and Anup Malani)

Transitional Justice as Ordinary Justice, 117 Harv. L. Rev. 761 (2004) (with Adrian Vermeule)

Probability Errors: Some Positive and Normative Implications for Tort and Contract Law, 11 Sup. Ct. Econ. Rev. 125 (2004), reprinted in The Law and Economics of Irrational Behavior 456 (Francesco Parisi Vernon Smith eds., 2005)

Bankuptcy Act of 1978, in Major Acts of Congress (Brian K. Landsberg ed., 2003), vol. 1, p. 59

The Nondelegation Doctrine: A Postmortem, 70 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1331 (2003) (withAdrian Vermeule)

Tobacco Regulation or Litigation? (Review of Smoke-Filled Rooms by W. Kip Viscusi), 70 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1141 (2003)

Transfer Regulations and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, 53 Duke L.J. 1067 (2003)

Accommodating Emergencies, 56 Stan. L. Rev. 605 (2003) (with Adrian Vermeule), reprinted in The Constitution in Wartime 55 (Mark Tushnet, editor, 2005)

Do States Have a Moral Obligation to Comply with International Law?, 55 Stan. L. Rev. 1901 (2003)

A Theory of the Laws of War, 70 U. Chi. L. Rev. 297 (2003)

Reparations for Slavery and Other Historical Injustices, 103 Colum. L. Rev. 689 (2003) (with Adrian Vermeule)

International Agreements: A Rational Choice Approach, 44 Va. J. Int’l L. 113 (2003) (with Jack Goldsmith)

The Jurisprudence of Greed, 151 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1097 (2003)

Four Economic Perspectives on American Labor Law and the Problem of Social Conflict, 159 J. Inst’l & Theoretical Econ. 101 (2003)

Economic Analysis of Contract Law After Three Decades: Success or Failure?, 112 Yale L.J. 829 (2003), reprinted in Economics of Contract Law (Douglas Baird ed. 2007)

Comment on Means Testing Consumer Bankruptcy by Jean Braucher, 7 Fordham J. Corp & Fin. L. 457 (2002)

Introduction to a Conference on Rational Choice and International Law, 31 J. Legal Stud. S1 (2002)

Further Thoughts on Customary International Law, 23 Mich. J. Inter’l L. 191 (2002) (with Jack Goldsmith)

The Signaling Model of Social Norms: Further Thoughts, 36 U. Rich. L. Rev. 465 (2002)

Review of Law and Market Economy, by Robin Paul Malloy, 18 Economics and Philosophy 183 (2002)

Review of The Jurisprudential Foundations of Corporate and Commercial Law, edited by Jody S. Kraus and Steven D. Walt, 112 Ethics 626 (2002)

Interring the Nondelegation Doctrine, 69 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1721 (2002) (with Adrian Vermeule)

Moral and Legal Rhetoric in International Relations: A Rational Choice Perspective , 31 J. Legal Stud. S115 (2002) (with Jack Goldsmith)

Controlling Agencies with Net Benefit Accounts: A Thought Experiment, 150 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1473 (2002)

Fear and the Regulatory Model of Counterterrorism, 25 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol. 681 (2002)

Legislative Entrenchment: A Reappraisal, 111 Yale L.J. 1665 (2002) (with Adrian Vermeule)

The Law and Economics of Consumer Finance, 4 Amer. Law & Econ. Rev. 162 (2002) (with Richard Hynes)

Strategies of Constitutional Scholarship (Review of The Strategic Constitution byRobert D. Cooter), 26 Law & Social Inquiry 529 (2001)

Controlling Agencies with Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Positive Political Theory Perspective, 68 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1137 (2001)

Law and the Emotions, 89 Georgetown L.J. 1977 (2001)

Cost-Benefit Analysis as a Solution to a Principal-Agent Problem, 53 Admin. L. Rev. 289 (2001)

Review of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law, edited by Peter Newman, 110 Econ J. 824 (2000)

Law and Regret (Review of Changing Your Mind by E. Allan Farnsworth), 98 Mich. L. Rev. 1468 (2000)

Law and Social Norms: The Case of Tax Compliance, 86 Va. L. Rev. 1781 (2000)

The Design and Interpretation of Contracts: Why Complexity Matters, 95 Nw. U.L. Rev. 91 (2000) (with Karen Eggleston and Richard Zeckhauser)

Agency Models in Law and Economics, in Chicago Lectures in Law and Economics (Eric A. Posner ed., 2000), reprinted in Game Theory and the Law (Eric B. Rasmussen ed., 2007)

Introduction to the Conference on Cost-Benefit Analysis, 29 J. Legal Stud. 837 (2000) (with Matthew Adler)

Implementing Cost-Benefit Analysis When Preferences Are Distorted, 29 J. Legal Stud. 1105 (2000) (with Matthew Adler)

Understanding the Resemblance Between Modern and Traditional Customary International Law, 40 Va. J. Int’l Law 639 (2000) (with Jack L. Goldsmith)

A Theory of Contract Law Under Conditions of Radical Judicial Error, 94 Nw. U. L. Rev. 749 (2000)

Contract Remedies: Foreseeability, Precaution, Causation, and Mitigation, in The Encyclopedia of Law and Economics (Boudewijn Bouckaert and Gerrit De Geest, eds.): Edward Elgar (2000)

Rethinking Cost-Benefit Analysis, 109 Yale L.J. 165 (1999) (with Matthew Adler) (Reprinted in part in Jurisprudence: Contemporary Readings, Narratives, and Problems (Robert Hayman et al., ed., 2d ed. 2002))

A Theory of Customary International Law, 66 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1113 (1999) (with Jack L. Goldsmith)

Should Debtors Be Forced into Chapter 13?, 32 Loyola of Los Angeles L. Rev. 965 (1999)

Arbitration and the Harmonization of International Commercial Law: A Defense ofMitsubishi, 39 Va. J. Intern’l Law 647 (1999)

Shaming White Collar Criminals under the Federal Sentencing Guidelines, 42 J. Law & Econ. 365 (1999) (With Dan M. Kahan)

Family Law and Social Norms, in The Fall and Rise of Freedom of Contract (Frank Buckley, ed.): Duke University Press (1999)

The Decline of Formality in Contract Law, in The Fall and Rise of Freedom of Contract (Frank Buckley, ed.): Duke University Press (1999)

A Positive Theory of Chapter 11, 74 NYU Law Rev. 161 (1999) (with Kevin A. Kordana)

The Demand for Human Cloning, in Clones and Clones: Facts and Fantasies About Human Cloning (Martha C. Nussbaum and Cass R. Sunstein, eds.): W.W. Norton (1998) (with Richard A. Posner) (Reprinted, with a postscript, in 27 Hofstra L. Rev. 579 (1999))

Notes Toward a Theory of Customary International Law, 92 ASIL Proceedings 53 (1998) (With Jack L. Goldsmith)

Efficient Norms, in The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics and the Law (Peter Newman, ed.): Macmillan (1998)

The Strategic Basis of Principled Behavior: A Critique of the Incommensurability Thesis, 146 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1185 (1998)

Symbols, Signals, and Social Norms in Politics and the Law, 27 J. Legal Stud. 765 (1998) (reprinted in Law and Economics (Nicholas Mercuro ed., 2007))

The Parol Evidence Rule, the Plain Meaning Rule, and the Principles of Contractual Interpretation, 146 U. Pa. L. Rev. 533 (1998)

Standards, Rules, and Social Norms, 21 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Policy 101 (1997)

The Political Economy of the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978, 96 Mich. L. Rev. 47 (1997) (reprinted in part in Bankruptcy Anthology (Charles J. Tabb ed. 2001)

Altruism, Status, and Trust in the Law of Gifts and Gratuitous Promises, 1997 Wisc. L. Rev. 567 (1997)

Norms, Formalities, and the Statute of Frauds: A Comment, 144 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1971 (1996)

The Legal Regulation of Religious Groups, 2 Legal Theory 33 (1996)

Law, Economics, and Inefficient Norms, 144 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1697 (1996)

The Regulation of Groups: The Influence of Legal and Nonlegal Sanctions on Collective Action, 63 U. Chi. L. Rev. 133 (1996)

Contract Law in the Welfare State: A Defense of Usury Laws, the Unconscionability Doctrine, and Related Limitations on the Freedom to Contract, 24 J. Legal Stud. 283 (1995)


Kirkland and Ellis Distinguished Service Professor, University of Chicago Law School